The reduction in revenue 3D theater, is a growing problem in the film industry. Which it was announced as an innovative and powerful content platform in 3D so immersive and fascinating, has failed to capture the interest of viewers.
By Bruno Tavares *
One of the perspectives of the problem of film 3D is based on content, in the sense that producers produce films in 3D who never thought to 3D, or worse, simply take out a bad job with respect to production 3D in general.
On this point, the CEO of DreamWorks Animation Jeffrey Katzenberg publicly denounced in an interview with Variety in 2010 producers and studies that "had killed the goose that lays golden eggs" producing massively films 3D "appalling" 1. A clear and unfortunate evidence of his view is that since the collection of films 3D (vs. 2D movies) in the US market fell from 67 2009 percent to 42 2013 percent.
This is a serious problem, mainly because the overpricing of the 3D entry, which benefits the entire industry - from studios to exhibitors - is also experiencing a drastic reduction
However, to pretend that Hollywood studios fully take the blame would be unfair technological -suministradores, system integrators and exhibitors must also take their share of responsibility and understand the potential impact of technological decisions have to create and provide the overall experience 3D
What goes wrong in the 3D experience?
3D cinema is possible due to the mass use of digital cinema projectors. For digitizing screens, installers usually designed projection systems that reach a level of screen brightness 14 fL, in accordance with the Cinema Initiatives (DCI) Digital specifications. However, teams are usually designed assuming that all films are shown in 2D. What further problem arises, since the 3D equipment (several polarizers, wheels, lenses, etc.) absorb effectively between 70 and 90 percent of the light, leaving only a small fraction of brightness 14 fL.
This means that the audience barely appreciate the details that make up the image; everything fades into the background and become unnatural colors. The closest thing to a movie with a low level of brightness would be to read in low light, accompanied by headache and eyestrain.
To make matters worse, most 3D systems need a large screen high gain with a point higher brightness in front of the viewer but with a brightness level that is deteriorating in those areas of the remote screen. This is quite away from a natural and immersive experience. Until display manufacturers to develop uniform surfaces that can retain the polarization of light, the only way to get natural and immersive experiences 3D is to use white screens low gain
We must also consider stereopsis. Stereopsis is the visual process which allows two eyes see two slightly different images of each other. The human brain uses these two images, as well as other fundamental, such as the relative size and orientation of the surface to form a single mental image, that complete with accurate depth perception issues.
These two images normally occur simultaneously. However, with rare exceptions, 3D films are shown by projecting images sequentially through flashes on either eye (right and left) by a single projection lens.
This means that the brain receives images of the right eye and the left eye at different times and also have to carry out the task of correcting for temporary compensation. It is an unnatural role, although not perceptible consciously by most viewers, increases your level of fatigue or result in headaches and in some cases even cause nausea or dizziness while 3D displayed content. Ideally project images simultaneously and persistent both eyes, rather than projecting a rapid succession of flashes between them.

A technical solution
It is well known that a laser projection system, along with the proper selection of equipment 3D efficient, could solve the problems of brightness 3D on most screens. The public demonstration held in 2013 Christie laser projection showed that a single projector lumens 72.000 14 getting a brightness fL on a large screen high gain 65 feet, using a RealD XL system 3D. It was a benchmark for the sector, as the audience was finally able to watch a movie 3D with the right level of brightness.
However, the system still projecting images flashes through the left eye and the right, and approaching the maximum capacity of brightness, so it had not been possible to illuminate a larger screen. A relatively easy solution is to add a second projector to the system. This would double the points of light output, while naturally would provide simultaneous images to the two eyes. Modern computer technology vision based on dress, as used in the Christie Duo system can eliminate the task of keeping systems perfectly aligned dual purpose projection, cinema projection.
Christie laser show was affected by the fact that the system in use 3D needed a large nonuniform high gain to maintain the polarization of the light screen. Currently, there are only two alternatives 3D white screens using low gain. A shutter system uses lenses, projecting images flashes through the right eye and the left from a single projector alternately blocking each eye sees only the image that it deserves.
This approach, however, is very inefficient from the perspective of brightness, and is not ideal because of the implications of stereopsis, although some people might consider that the overall experience improvement due to the uniformity of the image is achieved .
The other solution available for low gain white screens using a technique known as 3D based on color separation. This approach takes advantage of the fact that the images projected on the screen are created using a combination pixel to pixel of red, green and blue primary colors (RGB).
Glasses designed specifically be filtered wavelengths specific color of light to enter each eye in particular. By generating images for an eye from the combination of primary colors RGB (R1G1B1) while images for the other eye are generated using a different combination of primary colors RGB (R2G2B2), glasses-filter can be used to ensure that each eye sees only the right image.
This approach uses the 3D system Dolby Laboratories, and is widely recognized as the best 3D platform for accurate color reproduction and an experience 3D naturally immersive, especially if two projection heads are used for simultaneous images in both eyes .
Dolby 3D system is available in the market for some years, however, the biggest drawback of lamp-based systems is that the process of isolating two different sets of primary colors RGB of a xenon lamp (white) spectrum is extremely inefficient, which further exacerbates the problem of low brightness in rooms with very large screens.
If this were the case, surely it should be combined capacity of high brightness laser projection with superior image quality offered by the 3D technology based on color separation. Unfortunately, the solution is not so simple. The usual laser projection systems create light by combining a unique set of RGB primary colors to create the image.
It is what is known as laser projection 3-Primary (3P), and is ideal for theater projection and other industries 2D solution. With 3P, however, simply no "light energy" in the lengths of secondary waves to obtain from the second light source image for the other eye. To create separate color for the second eye image, we would need to add three primary colors laser light source - creating what is called aptly 6-Primary (6P) laser system.

Laser projection 6P
A laser projection system 6P, the wavelengths of light that are needed are generated directly at the source, without any light being wasted, while the isolation of specific colors is achieved for the separate images right and left eye.
The result is that a 3D dual 6P head is almost twice as efficient in terms of light the 3D system more efficient available today - with the added benefit of not needing a large nonuniform high gain screen. Similarly, the implementation of a laser system 6P can be carried out easily using two projection heads in a configuration Christie Duo, designating each projection head as projector to the right or left eye, connecting separately to its own set of RGB primary color lasers.
When considering a projection system 3D double 6P head is reasonable to consider system architectures using only one projection head, since the extra header added to not only on cost but also complexity system. However, if you consider what you get with the 6P laser, a dual-head system is the only option that makes sense.
The practical alternative to a theater high power is the sequential projection of flashes with images for the left and right eye through a single projection head, which clearly is not ideal based on previous implications of stereopsis.
The important thing is that a mono-head 6P system is less than half as efficient in terms of light that a dual head simultaneously emit images for the left eye and right. To achieve the sequential projection of images, a mono-head system is turned off or blocked mechanically either primary or primary R1G1B1 R2G2B2 alternately.
This means that each set of lasers is used less than 50 percent of the time considering switching transients and color effects that need to hide in the dark. Therefore, a laser system with 6P mono-head, the user will need at least twice as lasers to achieve the same result of light 3P 6D a dual head laser system. Given that the current cost of lasers far exceeds the cost of projection heads, this means that the cost of a single-head system will be almost twice the cost of a dual-head system to achieve the same 3D brightness level.
The future of the film industry
As with any new technology, it is expected that early adopters pay an extra cost, and will witness significant price decreases in similar product offerings during the early years. For this reason, it is essential that buyers carefully analyze the options that are available and so ensure that any product you buy today will be scalable and upgradeable, as with the modular architecture with laser projection system sold by Christie.
6P laser projection is definitely the future of cinema and someday will become the main source of lighting projection systems. Christie and other individuals in the sector have a strong belief and expectation that the laser projection will raise the bar for all 3D screens, satisfying market needs and restoring the collection levels of the film industry in 3D way that reflects the impressive experience 3D that viewers could only enjoy their cinemas.
Why two heads are better than one
As explicit warning, an exhibitor should not be considered under no circumstances 6P sequential system with a single head. Such systems not only exhibits "flashing" artifacts on the screen, but also makes an extremely inefficient use of lasers for 3D based on color separation (versus a dual-head system) and has a throughput lower normal with respect to other configurations 2D and 3D systems (against 3P systems).
It could easily fool the buyer. For example, if a laser projector is provided with 6 60.000P lumens of light output, it is very likely that this specification is a light output for only one 2D system; 3D the actual light output would be below 30.000 lumens after considering alternating flashing or sealing of each set of primary colors laser.
Clearly, in this case, the technology would not provide coverage to a market need for higher brightness in 3D or 2D would be offering adequate solution, but only taking advantage of the current hype laser projection system 6P.
* Bruno Tavares is CEO of Christie in South America.
Richard St.
Author: Richard St.
Journalist from the University of Antioquia (2010), with experience in technology and economics. Editor of the magazines TVyVideo + Radio and AVI Latin America. Academic Coordinator of TecnoTelevisión & Radio.


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